Panchanga means five limbs. These limbs are primarily used to select auspicious timing. Calculations are based on sun and the moon, and also the combination between these two. These five limbs give additional insight into the muhurta chart for choosing best time for a particular activity or purpose. They are Nakshatra, Tithi, Karana,Vaar /Dina and Yoga.
*Vaar, days of the week or dina (solar day) - Birth on a particular day will make that planet's affairs in the chart quite significant in a person's life. Sunday is ruled by Sun, Monday by Moon, Tuesday by Mars, Wednesday by Mercury, Thursday by Jupiter, Saturday by Saturn
*Tithi - means a lunar day which is slightly shorter than a normal day. Birth in a particular Tithi shows our connection to a particular deity and an aspect of ourselves which can be used positively or negatively. There are 15 tithis which repeat in the 30 day lunar month, 15 tithi days during the shukla paksha or bright waxing phase of the moon's cycle, which culminate in the Full Moon or Poornima, and 15 tithi days during krishna paksha - dark half or waning phase of the moon's cycle which culminates in the New Moon Day or Amavasya. Important Hindu religious festivals are based around certain tithis.
1. Pratipada - (Deity - Agni) - Growth, new enterprise, learning, being industrious
2. Dwitiya - (Deity - Brahma) - Joy
3. Tritiya - (Deity - Gauri) - Courage, good speech
4. Chatruthi - (Deity - Ganapati) - Fulfills ambition, spiritual activity
5. Panchami - (Deity - Naga) - Wealth
6. Shashti - (Deity - Kartika) - Reputation, Fame
7. Saptami - (Deity - Surya) - Friendship, power over others
8. Ashtami - (Deity - Bhairav) - Controversy, greed
9. Navami - (Deity - Durga) - Arrogance, recognition
10.Dashmi - (Deity - Yama) - Sobre, virtuous
11.Ekadashi - (Deity - Vishvedeva) - Happiness
12.Dwadashi - (Deity - Vishnu) - Popularity, fame
13.Tryodashi - (Deity - Kamadeva) - Success, Victory, Wealth
14.Chaturdashi - (Deity - Rudra) - Anger, violence
15 Poornima - (Deity - Chandra) - Maturity, sober, fame
30.Amavasya - (Deity - Pitris) - Religion, ancestors
*Karana - half a lunar day. The karanas indicate actions which can support the tithi.
1.BAVA -Auspicious, Honourable, Business, Starting work, Health.
2.BALAVA-Honour, learning, respect, ceremony.
3.KAULAVA-Social, Spiritual, Relationships, Marriage.
4.TAITILA- Speech, communication, promotion, construction.
5.GARA-Hardworking, Agriculture, new undertakings.
6.VANIJA-Wealth, clever, business, relationships.
7.VISHTI-Self-reliant, only auspicious for harsh activity, fighting.
8.SHAKUNI-Worship, advising, psychic, intelligent, healing.
9.CHATUSHPADA-Ancestors, Brahmin, government.
10. NAGA- Cruel deeds, dangerous activities, Unstable.
*Nakshatra - 27 mansions or houses, 3 of which occupy each sign.
1. Aswini 0° - 13° 20' Aries - (Deity -Aswini Kumaras ie. Dashra & Nasatya, Brahma, Ganesh) -Favourable for Beginnings, Initiation, Laying foundations, Healing, Buying & Selling, Learning. ( 1st Pada is not auspicious).
2. Bharani 13° 20' - 26° 40' Aries - (Deity -Yama, Kali) - Favourable for Cruel,warlike activity, sexual activity, fertility rites, agriculture, beginnings & endings, purificatory rites, dealing with children.
3. Krittika 26° 40' Aries - 10° 00' Taurus - (Deity -Kartikkeya, Agni) - Favourable for Fire worship, Purification, initiative, taking leadership, cooking, nurturing, educational ventures, cutting.
4. Rohini 10°Taurus - 23° 20' Taurus - (Deity -Brahma) - Favourable time for planting, sowing, trading, financial activity, marriage, nature, romance,acquiring possessions.
5. Mrigashira 23° 20' Taurus - 6° 40' Gemini - (Deity -Chandra, Parvati) - Favourable for light enjoyments, travel, exploring, hunting, sex, artistry, healing, education, socializing, setting up altars.
6. Ardra 6° 40' Gemini - 20° 00' Gemini - (Deity -Rudra) - Favourable for destructive activities,intellectual, research & creativity, confronting difficulty
7. Purnavasu 20° Gemini - 3° 20' Cancer - (Deity -Aditi) - Beginnings, Initiation, Laying foundations, Healing, Buying & Selling, Learning.Favourable for travelling, exploring, pilgrimages, healing, starting over again, philanthropy, spiritual, worshipping Mother goddess.
8. Pushya 3° 20' Cancer - 16° 40' Cancer - (Deity -Brihaspati) - Starting anything, Dealing with enemies, All nourishing and soothing activity, for most enjoyable activities, spiritual, seeking help.
9. Ashlesha 16° 40' Cancer- 30° 00' Cancer - (Deity - Nagas) - Favourable for administering poisons, filing lawsuits, scheming & plotting, sex, taking short term risks, kundalini yoga.
10. Magha 0° 00 Leo - 13° 20' Leo - (Deity -Pitris) - Ceremonies, Marriage, Stage & public performance, parades, award ceremonies, Historical study, job promotion, donations, religious activity, ancient knowledge, seeking favours from authority.
11. Purva Phalguni 13° 20' Leo - 26° 40' Leo- (Deity - Bhaga) - Favourable for marriage, sex, relationships in general, rest, relaxation, enjoyment, art, creativity, property matters.
12. Uttara Phalguni 26° 40' Leo - 10° 00' Virgo - (Deity -Aryaman) - Favourable for sex, marriage, beginnings,dealings with authority, openings, making promises, sacred ceremonies, charitable enterprise, paternal activity.
13. Hasta 10° 00' Virgo - 23° 20' Virgo - (Deity -Savitar) - Favourable for sun worship, arts, crafts, comedy,hobbies, planting and gardening, learning languages, magic tricks, business activity, marriage, buying, selling, bargaining, children, stealing, travel.
14. Chitra 23° 20' Virgo - 6° 40' Libra - (Deity -Vishwakarma) - Self improvement,buying new clothes & adornments, fixing up home, arts, crafts, technical, architecture, relationships, beautifying.
15. Swati 6° 40' Libra - 20° 00' Libra - (Deity -Vayu, Saraswati) - Favourable for business & trade, education, social activity, finances, grooming, planting, harvesting, diplomatic negotiation.
16. Vishakha 20° 00' Libra - 3° 20' Scorpio - (Deity - Indra, Agni) - Favourable for aggressive, warlike activity, executive, harsh,concentration, meditation, setting goals, ceremonies, social parties, romance, sex.
17. Anuradha 3° 20' Scorpio - 16° 40' Scorpio - (Deity -Mitra, Saraswati) - Favourable for group activity, research, study, occult, meditation, exploring nature, travel, foreign affairs, finances, secret activity, friendship.
18. Jyestha 16° 40' Scorpio - 30° 00' Scorpio - (Deity -Indra) - Favourable for harsh activity, judgement and punishment, taking control, authority, occult, helping elders, family matters, discipline & penance, magic.
19. Mula 0° 00' Sagittarius - 13° 20' Sagittarius - (Deity -Nritti, Kali) - Knowledge, oratory, herbs, medicines, agriculture, building foundations, adventures, cutting, self assertion, meditation, transformation, astrology.
20. Purva Shadha 13° 20' Sagittarius - 26° 40' Sagittarius - (Deity -Apah) - Favourable for courageous activity, adventures, confrontation, war, water activity, performance, agriculture, marriage, sex, sport.
21. Uttara Shadha 26° 40' Sagittarius - 10° 00' Capricorn - (Deity - Ganesh, 10 Vishvadevas) - Favourable for Beginnings, Planning, Spiritual activity, Business, Contracts, Marraige, sex, dealing with authority & legal matters, initiations of any kind.
22. Shravana 10° 00' Capricorn - 23° 20' Capricorn - (Deity -Vishnu, Saraswati) - Favourable for religious activity, new ventures, property, medicine and healing, advice, music, learning, languages, meditation, sex, organization, important communications, travel.
23. Dhanishta 23° 20' Capricorn - 6° 40' Aquarius - (Deity -Shiva, The Vasus) - Favourable for religious activity, creative, music, dancing, group work, celebrations, purchasing, travelling, lending money, spiritual, meditation, gardening, treating illnesses, promotion.
24. Shatabhishak 6° 40' Aquarius - 20° 00' Aquarius - (Deity -Shiva, Varuna) - Favourable for contracts, property, education, travel, meditation, sex, shamanic ceremonies involving plants, astrology, healing, technological activity, sea activity, solitude.
25. Purva Bhadrapada 20° 00' Aquarius - 3° 20' Pisces - (Deity -Aja-Ekapada, Rudra, Kali) - Dangerous, risky activity, mechanical or technological, death, endings, funerals, water, agricultural, penance, occult practices related to death issues.
26. Uttara Bhadrapada 3° 20' Pisces - 16° 40' Pisces - (Deity -Ahir Budhanya, Shiva) - Meditation, solitude, research, kundalini practice, making promises, contracts, marriage, construction, charity, sex, treating disease, gardening, dealing with organizations.
27. Revati 16° 40' Pisces - 30° 00' Pisces - (Deity -Pushan, Vishnu) - Initiations, Endings, Business, Finances, Trade, marriage, sex, religious ritual, travel, gemstones, purchasing, creative, charity, adoption, helping others, learning, healing, leisure.
*Nitya Yoga - This is the combination of moon and sun and these indicate some aspect of the personality. The yoga point falls in a particular nakshatra , and this point and its ruling planet can be auspiciously activated during favourable transits. The avayogi planet which is calculated from the yogi nakshatra tends to cause problems. These yogas are minor indications and only carry real weight if they are helping to compound the effect of major indications in the horoscope.
1. Vishkumbha (supported) - wealth (yoga point - pushya/saturn; avayogi -moon)
2. Priti (fondness) - attract, enjoyment (yoga point - ashlesha/mercury; avayogi - mars)
3. Ayushman (longlived) - health/longevity (yoga point - magha/ketu; avayogi - rahu)
4. Shubhagya (good fortune) - joy (yoga point - purva phalguni/venus; avayogi - jupiter)
5. Sobhana (splendour) - beauty, sensual (yoga point - uttara phalguni/sun; avayogi - saturn)
6. Atiganda (danger/obstacles) - destructive, struggle but clever (yoga point -hasta/moon; avayogi - mercury)
7. Sukarma (virtuous) - accomplish, magnanimity (yoga point - chitra/mars; avayogi - ketu)
8. Dhriti (determination) - controlling, determined, enjoys benefits from others (yoga point- swati/rahu; avayogi - venus)
9. Shula (spear, pain) - pain, argumentative (yoga point - vishakha/jupiter; avayogi -sun)
10. Ganda (danger or obstacles) - addiction, immoral (yoga point - anuradha/saturn; avayogi- moon)
11. Vridditi (growth) - wisdom/speech - (yoga point - jyestha/mercury; avayogi- mars)
12. Dhruva (constant) - wealth/power, steady (yoga point - mula/ketu; avayogi - rahu)
13. Vyaghata (beating) - danger/injury, cruel (yoga point - purva ashadha/venus; avayogi- jupiter)
14. Harshana (thrilling) - joy/fame/wisdom, delight(yoga point - uttara shadha/sun; avayogi - saturn)
15. Vajra (diamond, thunderbolt) - power.forceful energy (yoga point - shravana/moon; avayogi - mercury)
16. Siddhi (success) - success/protection, skill (yoga point - dhanishta/mars; avayogi - ketu)
17. Vyatipatha (calamity) - deceptive, calamitous - (yoga point - shatabhishak/rahu; avayogi - venus)
18. Variyan (comfort) - greed, indulgent - (yoga point - purva bhadrapada/jupiter; avayogi - sun)
19. Parigha (obstruction) - inimical, meddlesome but weatlhy (yoga point - uttara bhadrapada/saturn; avayogi - moon)
20. Shiva (auspicious) - auspicious learned, honoured (yoga point - revati/mercury; avayogi - mars)
21. Siddha (accomplished) - success/skill (yoga point - aswini/ketu; avayogi - rahu)
22. Sadhya (amenable) - virtuous/good at relating (yoga point - bharani/venus; avayogi - jupiter)
23. Shubha (auspicious) - beauty/wealth - ( yoga point - krittika/sun; avayogi - saturn)
24. Shukla (bright white) - power of speech, fickle (yoga point -rohini/moon; avayogi - mercury)
25. Brahma (priest, god) - wisdom, honour (yoga point - mrigasira/mars; avayogi -ketu)
26. Indra (chief) - interest in others, helpful , respected (yoga point - ardra/rahu; avayogi - venus)
27. Vaidhriti (poor support) - overwhelming, calculative - (yoga point - purnavasu/jupiter; avayogi - sun)
Having a look at the famous personage Ramana Maharshi:-
He was born on a Monday whose day lord is Moon. In his chart his 11th lord moon is in the 10th house conjunct ketu and has formed quite a strong opposition to his 12th lord sun and rahu in the 4th house. His moon is in the nakshatra of Purnavasu. He is recognized for a very moon related theme, his teaching on how to to merge the mind into the heart centre, dissolving the ego, sense of "I" and was an example of simplicity in character and living (purnavasu theme).
He was born in the tithi of Dwitiya, an embodiment of joy and infinite energy, and in the karana Taitula relating to all types of communication. He was often able to communicate profound messages to others through silence, or non speech, but when he spoke it was to help others understand the methods by which the mind could be brought under control.He also had a talent for construction and building, having played a great part in the building of his ashram.
His Nitya yoga was Indra, and he was indeed a great chief and leader. This is connected to Ardra nakshatra, and one could say his intellectual prowess was quite strong even though he was not academic.
He died on the eve of 14th April 1950. At that time moon was passing through the constellation of Purvabhadrapada, a nakshatra associated with death and endings. It was a Friday ruled by Venus, venus being his avayogi planet or point of vulnerable weakness. Venus is also a maraka planet, and his 9th lord, so embodied alot of his divine beneficence also.